Sidney Poitier speaks about Civil Rights

Sidney Poitier speaks about Civil Rights
Sidney Poitier, is a major movie star of the 1960s, Poitier grew up in the Bahamas, then came to the U.S. to start his acting career.
In 1963, Poitier became the first black person to win an Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in Lilies of the Field. The significance of this achievement was later bolstered in 1967 when he starred in three well-received films—To Sir, with Love; In the Heat of the Night; and Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner—making him the top box office star of that year. In 1999, the American Film Institute named Poitier among the Greatest Male Stars of All Time, ranking 22nd on the list of 25
In 2002, 38 years after receiving the Best Actor Award, Poitier was chosen by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to receive an Honorary Award designated “To Sidney Poitier in recognition of his remarkable accomplishments as an artist and as a human being.”Since 1997 he has been the Bahamian ambassador to Japan. On August 12, 2009, Sidney Poitier was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom the United States of America’s highest civilian honor by Barack Obama

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The Red, Black, and Green flag is something that’s often hung by many black organizations around the world. You’ll also see plenty of our “conscious” brothers and sisters wearing the colors but do we even know where they come from or what they stand for? In 1920, Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association held its first national convention in New York’s Madison Square Garden. Over 25,000 black people from all over the world came to this convention and another 10,000 waited outside. Some of which came from Africa, Asia, and South America were threatened with death and life imprisonment if they attended the convention but they still came anyway. During the convention, a flag was made to represent black people all over the world. Now I’m sure many of us have heard the “Red for our blood, Black for our people, and Green for the land” speech but there is a much greater meaning behind the colors.(SanCopha) They represent the sacrifices our ancestors made to show us “WE ARE SOMEBODY”.  The colors are a symbol of Hope but most of all they scream UNITY!!! We need to have love for one another and put aside all the petty differences. “Learn to see me as a Brother instead of two distant strangers.” If you can’t do that, If you can’t embody what the colors stand for; if you allow your religion, job, skin complexion, education, or any other thing to separate you from your people then please don’t walk around with these colors. It’s an insult to all those who have sacrificed so much with the vision of a better tomorrow. Red, Black, and Green: The Colors of a Nation!!!

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Amadou Bailo Diallo (September 2, 1975 – February 4, 1999) was a 23-year-old immigrant from Guinea who was shot and killed in New York City on February 4, 1999 by four New York City Police Department plain-clothed officers: Sean Carroll, Richard Murphy, Edward McMellon and Kenneth Boss, who fired a combined total of 41 shots, 19 of which struck Diallo, outside his apartment at 1157 Wheeler Avenue in the Soundview section of The Bronx. The four were part of the now-defunct Street Crimes Unit. All four officers were acquitted at trial in Albany, New York.[1]

Diallo was unarmed at the time of the shooting, and a firestorm of controversy erupted subsequent to the event as the circumstances of the shooting prompted outrage both within and outside New York City. Issues such as police brutality, racial profiling, and contagious shooting were central to the ensuing controversy.
Contents

1 Biography
2 Events surrounding death
3 Aftermath
4 Cultural references to Diallo
5 See also
5.1 Similar cases
6 References
7 External links

Biography

One of four children of Saikou and Kadiatou Diallo, Amadou’s family is part of an old Fulbe trading family in Guinea. He was born in Sinoe County, Liberia, while his father was working there, and grew up following his family to Togo, Bangkok, and Singapore, attending schools in Thailand, and later in Guinea and London, including Microsoft’s Asian Institute. In September 1996, he came to New York City where other family members had immigrated. He and a cousin started a business. He had reportedly come to New York City to study but had not enrolled in any school. He sought to remain in the United States by filing an application for political asylum under false pretenses.[2] He sold videotapes, gloves and socks from the sidewalk along 14th Street during the day and studied in the evenings.
Events surrounding death

In the early morning of February 4, 1999, Diallo was standing near his building after returning from a meal. Police officers Edward McMellon, Sean Carroll, Kenneth Boss and Richard Murphy passed by in a Ford Taurus. Observing that Diallo matched the description of a since-captured well-armed serial rapist involved in the rape or attempted rape of 51 victims, they approached him.[3][4] The officers were in plain clothes.

The officers claimed they loudly identified themselves as NYPD officers and that Diallo ran up the outside steps toward his apartment house doorway at their approach, ignoring their orders to stop and “show his hands”. The porch lightbulb was out and Diallo was backlit by the inside vestibule light, showing only a silhouette. Diallo then reached into his jacket and withdrew his wallet. Seeing the suspect holding a small square object, Carroll yelled “Gun!” to alert his colleagues. Believing Diallo had aimed a gun at them at close range, the officers opened fire on Diallo. During the shooting, lead officer McMellon tripped backward off the front stairs, causing the other officers to believe he had been shot. The four officers fired 41 shots, more than half of which went astray as Diallo was hit 19 times.[1]

The post-shooting investigation found no weapons on Diallo’s body; the item he had pulled out of his jacket was not a gun, but a rectangular black wallet. The internal NYPD investigation ruled the officers had acted within policy, based on what a reasonable police officer would have done in the same circumstances with the information they had. The Diallo shooting led to a review of police training policy and the use of full metal jacket (FMJ) bullets. On March 25, 1999 a Bronx grand jury indicted the four officers on charges of second-degree murder and reckless endangerment. On December 16, an appellate court ordered a change of venue to Albany, New York, stating that pretrial publicity had made a fair trial in New York City impossible. On February 25, 2000, after two days of deliberation, a mixed-race jury in Albany acquitted the officers of all charges. Officer Kenneth Boss had been previously involved in an incident where an unarmed man was shot, but remained working as a police officer. A 22-year-old man, Patrick Bailey, died after Boss shot him on October 31, 1997.[5] As of 2012 Boss is the only remaining officer working for the NYPD.[6]
Aftermath

Diallo’s death, the change of venue, and the verdict each sparked massive demonstrations against police brutality and racial profiling, resulting in more than 1,700 arrests over the course of many weeks. Those arrested in the daily protests at the entrance of One Police Plaza included former NYPD officers, former mayor David Dinkins, Congressmen Charlie Rangel and Gregory Meeks, Rev. Al Sharpton, Rev. Jesse Jackson, New York State Assemblyman Ruben Diaz Jr., activist actress Susan Sarandon, more than a dozen rabbis and other clergy, and numerous federal, state, and local politicians. Charges against the protesters were later dropped.

In 2001, the Justice Department announced it would not charge the officers with a violation of Diallo’s civil rights. In the vestibule where Diallo died, neighbors created a shrine of letters, teddy bears, and other items. Within several weeks, there was a severe rain period and the landlord of the building put all the items in the garbage. A neighbor, Jimmy Spice Curry, rescued the items, storing them until he was able to contact Eugene Adams,[who?] of Bronx Community College, who was given the items to donate to Diallo’s mother.[citation needed]

On April 18, 2000, Diallo’s mother, Kadiatou, and his stepfather, Sankarella Diallo, filed a US$61,000,000 ($20m plus $1m for each shot fired) lawsuit against the City of New York and the officers, charging gross negligence, wrongful death, racial profiling, and other violations of Diallo’s civil rights. In March 2004, they accepted a US$3,000,000 settlement. The much lower final settlement was still reportedly one of the largest in the City of New York for a single man with no dependents under New York State’s “wrongful death law”, which limits damages to pecuniary loss by the decedent’s next of kin.[7]

Anthony H. Gair, lead counsel for the Diallo family, argued that Federal common law should apply, pursuant to Section 1983 of the civil rights act. In April 2002, as a result of the killing of Diallo and other controversial actions, the Street Crime Unit was disbanded. In 2003, Diallo’s mother, Kadiatou Diallo, published a memoir, My Heart Will Cross This Ocean: My Story, My Son, Amadou (ISBN 0-345-45600-9), with the help of author Craig Wolff. Diallo’s death became an issue in the 2005 mayoral election in New York City. Bronx borough president, and mayoral candidate, Fernando Ferrer, who had protested the circumstances of the killing at the time, later told a meeting of police sergeants that although the shooting had certainly been a tragedy, there was subsequently a move to “over-indict” the officers involved, which led to criticism of Ferrer by the Diallo family and many others following the case.[8]

The event spurred subsequent social psychology research. A number of experiments have conducted with both undergraduate volunteers and police officers playing a computer game where they must choose whether to shoot or not to shoot a target who may be white or black, on the basis of whether or not they are armed. Such studies find that participants made slower and less accurate decisions on whether to shoot an unarmed black target than an unarmed white target, and were quicker and more likely to correctly decide to shoot an armed black target than an armed white target. Both black and white participants respond in this manner. No correlations have been found between participant’s indicated levels of racial bias, and their performance in the games.[9]

Amadou Diallo is buried in the village of Hollande Bourou in the Fouta Djallon region of Guinea, West Africa, where his extended family resides.
Cultural references to Diallo

The Diallo shooting has been referenced in the music of 88 Keys,[10] Bruce Springsteen’s song “American Skin (41 Shots)”,[11] the Ziggy Marley song “I Know You Don’t Care About Me”, the Trivium song “Contempt Breeds Contamination” and the song “Diallo” by Wyclef Jean.[12]
See also
Portal icon Biography portal

Blink (book)
Civil rights
Police brutality
List of killings by law enforcement officers in the United States
Racial profiling
American Skin (41 Shots)

Similar cases

Sean Bell shooting incident
Patrick Dorismond
Johnny Gammage
Rodney King
Abner Louima
Ousmane Zongo
Jean Charles de Menezes
BART Police shooting of Oscar Grant
Mark Duggan
Shooting of Trayvon Martin

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The job of a revolutionary is, of course, to overthrow unjust systems and replace them with just systems because a revolutionary understands this can only be done by the masses of the people So, the task of the revolutionary is to organize the masses of the people, given the conditions of the Africans around the world who are disorganized, consequently all my efforts are going to organizing people”Kwame Toure (Stokely Carmichael) & Dr King

Indifference

How long Time shall we suffer at the feet of the wicked how long shall they break asunder thy heritage, and inflict their cruelty upon the earth How long shall the workers of iniquity shatter the conscious of humanity How long shall the widow and the fatherless suffer this indignation and carry it in their souls who shall set us free and deliver us from this wretched condition called life?

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In October 1966, Bobby Hutton, 16 years old, then became the first member and the first treasurer of the Black Panther Party. In May 1967, Hutton was one of thirty Panthers who traveled to the California state capitol in Sacramento to demonstrate against the Mulford Act, a bill that would prohibit carrying loaded firearms in public. The group walked in to the state assembly armed as a protest to the Mulford Act. Hutton and four other Panthers were arrested.

April 6, 1968, Bobby Hutton was killed by Oakland Police officers. The police shot an unarmed Bobby more than a dozen times when he had surrendered, after a shoot out between the Panthers and the Oakland police at a house in West Oakland. One Oakland police officer who witnessed the shooting later told a member of the Black Panther Party that, “What they did was first degree murder.” Bobby Hutton’s death at the hands of the Oakland police was yet another example of police brutality committed against the Oakland community and the Black Panther Party.

Hutton’s funeral was held on April 12 at the Ephesians Church of God in Berkeley, California. About 1,500 people attended the funeral and a rally held afterwards in West Oakland was attended by over 2,000 people.

DeFremery Park in West Oakland, California was unofficially named after Bobby Hutton not long after his death. “Lil’ Bobby Hutton Day” has been held annually at the park since April 1998. Organized by family members and former and former Black Panther Party members, the memorial event features speakers, performers, and art works commemorating Hutton’s black consciousness and dedication to the party.

Picture With Post:

Bobby Hutton and Bobby Seale inside the Sacramento Capitol building protesting the Mulford Act, a new law to stop the Black Panther Party from legally doing armed patrols of the police.

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“SEIZE THE TIME: The Eighth Defendant,” will tell the my true 60’s protest movement history and the true history of the Black Panther Party, giving those now and in the future an awareness of our history, as an example of how one should never give up the struggle for true liberation and freedom. Instilling and inspiring in them the hope that change is a possible and that, we the people, must proactively work to preserve our constitutional rights. With the help of people like you, that we will succeed and get an honest film about my sixties protest movement history and the history of the Black Panther Party produced.