The remains of part of the ancient Nubian city of Kerma

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The first developed societies appeared in Nubia before the time of the First Dynasty in Egypt (3100-2890 BC) including at the important site of Kerma (modern Doukki Gel or red mound located north of Khartoum relatively close to modern Egypt southern border) Around 2500 BC Egyptians began moving south and it is from them that most of our knowledge of Kush originates This expansion was halted by the fall of the Middle Kingdom in Egypt, by which time a strong Nubian society had emerged This early Nubian society formed its own kingdom founding a capital at Kerma By circa 1500 BC Egyptian expansion had resumed but this time it encountered organised resistance (either from multiple city states or a single unified empire based at Kerma it is unclear which) The Egyptians defeated this and made the region a colony It has long been thought that Nubian society was heavily influenced by Egypt and may only have begun as an Egyptian outpost However more recent discoveries have helped form a theory that Nubian society emerged at the same time as that of its northern neighbour and was entirely indigenous albeit born out of a shared Nilotic culture The two cultures may have evolved in competition with one another both producing pyramidal structures (the tumuli at Kerma were sometimes larger than the pyramids at Giza) and their own unique art forms ( 2500 BC Apparently a Nubian kingdom already exists by this time and is already large enough to rival Egypt in size )

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