The defeatists among us will find a million reasons why we should abandon the core principles of African liberation and The haters among us will attack those of us who fight for the liberation of our people, including the liberation of the African mind The collaborators with white supremacy among us will call those of us who believe in the empowerment of Black people foolish What we must do is surround ourselves with like-people people who realize that our culture and history is our immune system Never give up the fight and surround yourself with like-minded people

What Caused the Scramble for Africa?

The Scramble for Africa (1880-1900) was a period of rapid colonization of the African continent by European powers But it wouldn’t have happened except for the particular economic, social, and military evolution Europe was going through Before the Scramble for Africa – Europeans in Africa up to the 1880s By the beginning of the 1880s only a small part of Africa was under European rule and that area was largely restricted to the coast and a short distance inland along major rivers such as the Niger and the Congo and Britain had Freetown in Sierra Leone, forts along the coast of The Gambia, a presence at Lagos, the Gold Coast protectorate, and a fairly major set of colonies in Southern Africa (Cape Colony, Natal, and the Transvaal which it had annexed in 1877) and Southern Africa also had the independent Boer Oranje-Vrystaat (Orange Free State) and France had settlements at Dakar and St Louis in Senegal and had penetrated a fair distance up the river Senegal, the Assinie and Grand Bassam regions of Cote d’Ivoire, a protectorate over the coastal region of Dahomey (now Benin), and had begun colonization of Algeria as early as 1830 and Portugal had long established bases in Angola (first arriving in 1482, and subsequently retaking the port of Luanda from the Dutch in 1648) and Mozambique (first arriving in 1498 and creating trading posts by 1505) and Spain had small enclaves in north west Africa at Ceuta and Melilla (África Septentrional Española or Spanish North Africa) a And the Ottoman Turks controlled Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia (the strength of Ottoman rule varied greatly) What Caused the Scramble to Happen? There were several factors which created the impetus for the Scramble for Africa most of these were to do with events in Europe rather than in Africa End of the Slave Trade — Britain had had some success in halting the slave trade around the shores of Africa But inland the story was different — Arabs traders from north of the Sahara and on the East Coast still traded inland and many local chiefs were reluctant to give up the use of slaves Reports of slaving trips and markets were brought back to Europe by various explorers such as Livingstone and abolitionists in Britain and Europe were calling for more to be done and the Exploration — During the nineteenth century barely a year went by without a European expedition into Africa The boom in exploration was triggered to a great extent by the creation of the African Association by wealthy Englishmen in 1788 (who wanted someone to ‘find’ the fabled city of Timbuktu and the course of the Niger River) As the century moved on, the goal of the European explorer changed, and rather than traveling out of pure curiosity they started to record details of markets, goods and resources for the wealthy philanthropists who financed their trip and Henry Morton Stanley A naturalized American (born in Wales) who of all the explorers of Africa is the one most closely connected to the start of the Scramble for Africa Stanley had crossed the continent and located the ‘missing’ Livingstone but he is more infamously known for his explorations on behalf of King Leopold II of Belgium Leopold hired Stanley to obtain treaties with local chieftains along the course of the River Congo with an eye to creating his own colony (Belgium was not in a financial position to fund a colony at that time) Stanley’s work triggered a rush of European explorers such as Carl Peters to do the same for various European countries and the Capitalism -The end of European trading in slaves left a need for commerce between Europe and Africa. Capitalists may have seen the light over slavery but they still wanted to exploit the continent  new ‘legitimate’ trade would be encouraged Explorers located vast reserves of raw materials they plotted the course of trade routes, navigated rivers, and identified population centers which could be a market for manufactured goods from Europe It was a time of plantations and cash crops, dedicating the region’s workforce to producing rubber, coffee, sugar, palm oil, timber, etc for Europe And all the more enticing if a colony could be set up which gave the European nation a monopoly and What Other Factors Played a Role in the Scramble to Happen?  Steam Engines and Iron Hulled Boats  In 1840 the Nemesis arrived at Macao, south China. It changed the face of international relations between Europe and the rest of the world The Nemesis had a shallow draft (five feet) a hull of iron and two powerful steam engines It could navigate the non-tidal sections of rivers, allowing access inland and it was heavily armed Livingstone used a steamer to travel up the Zambezi in 1858 and had the parts transported overland to Lake Nyassa Steamers also allowed Henry Morton Stanley and Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza to explore the Congo and the Medical Advances — Africa, especially the western regions was known as the ‘White Man’s Grave’ because of the danger of two diseases: malaria and yellow fever During the eighteenth century only one in ten Europeans sent out to the continent by the Royal African Company survived. Six of the ten would have died in their first year In 1817 two French scientists, Pierre-Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou, extracted quinine from the bark of the South American cinchona tree It proved to be the solution to malaria; Europeans could now survive the ravages of the disease in Africa (Unfortunately yellow fever continued to be a problem and even today there is no specific treatment for the disease) and the Politics After the creation of a unified Germany (1871) and Italy (a longer process, but its capital relocated to Rome also in 1871) there was no room left in Europe for expansion. Britain, France and Germany were in an intricate political dance, trying to maintain their dominance, and an empire would secure it. France, which had lost two provinces to Germany in 1870 looked to Africa to gain more territory and Britain looked towards Egypt and the control of the Suez canal as well as pursuing territory in gold rich southern Africa. Germany, under the expert management of Chancellor Bismarck, had come late to the idea of overseas colonies but was now fully convinced of their worth (It would need some mechanism to be put in place to stop overt conflict over the coming land grab) and the Military Innovation at the beginning of the nineteenth century Europe was only marginally ahead of Africa in terms of available weapons as traders had long supplied them to local chiefs and many had stockpiles of guns and gunpowder But two innovations gave Europe a massive advantage In the late 1860s percussion caps were being incorporated into cartridges  what previously came as a separate bullet, powder and wadding, was now a single entity, easily transported and relatively weather proof The second innovation was the breach loading rifle Older model muskets, held by most Africans, were front loaders, slow to use (maximum of three rounds per minute) and had to be loaded whilst standing Breach loading guns in comparison had between two to four times the rate of fire and could be loaded even in a prone position Europeans with an eye to colonization and conquest restricted the sale of the new weaponry to Africa maintaining military superiority and The Mad Rush Into Africa in the Early 1880s Within just 20 years the political face of Africa had changed – with only Liberia (a colony run by ex- African-American slaves) and Ethiopia remaining free of European control The start of the 1880s saw a rapid increase in European nations claiming territory in Africa In 1880 the region to the north of the river Congo became a French protectorate following a treaty between the King of the Bateke, Makoko, and the explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza In 1881 Tunisia became a French protectorate and the Transvaal regained its independence and In 1882 Britain occupied Egypt (France pulled out of joint occupation) Italy begins colonization of Eritrea and In 1884 British and French Somaliland created and In 1884 German South West Africa, Cameroon, German East Africa, and Togo created, Río de Oro claimed by Spain Europeans Set the Rules for Dividing Up the Continent The Berlin Conference of 1884-85 (and the resultant General Act of the Conference at Berlin) laid down ground rules for the further partitioning of Africa Navigation on the Niger and Congo rivers was to be free to all and to declare a protectorate over a region the European colonizer must show effective occupancy and develop a ‘sphere of influence’ The floodgates of European colonization had opened

Did you know many African countries continue to pay colonial tax to France since their independence till today

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They are obliged by France to put all they money into French central bank under French minister of Finance control It’s such an evil system even denounced by the European Union but France is not ready to move from that colonial system which puts about 500 billions dollars from Africa to its treasury every year Take the Example of Togo After the independence of the country, France asked the small and poor country to pay for the benefit they’ve got from french colonisation The reimbursement of that so called “colonial debt” was close to 40% of the country budget in 1963 and Till today, 2013, Togo and about 20 other African countries still have to pay colonial debt to France African leaders who refuse are killed and During the last 50 years 45 coup were committed in Africa by French mercenaries and proxies

Africans In Horn Of Africa and Rest of Middle East

Egypt is still so intimidated by its glorious Black Nubian African past that its Arab government would not allow thorough research into Egypt past and In some places who got Arabization in Horn Africa and the rest of the Arab world Africans are treated as the scum of the earth And Blacks in these countries cannot aspire to positions of respect or authority There are hardly Africans in high government positions in Arab governed African countries and you should look into Mauritania left the Economic Community of West African States to join the union formed by the Arab North African States A few years ago Mauritania sacked all black natives from their civil service positions Black Mauritanians protest their plight to the African Union (AU) without receiving attention because AU black leaders fear offending their Arab colleagues in the AU In Mauritania they have had to declare an end to slavery six times in this century alone and still nothing has changed for the captive majority African natives African slavery is still in their statute books African slavery in Mauritania is what the on going quarrel between Mauritania and Senegal is about The quarrel forced black African refugees to pour across the border from Mauritania into Senegal and In Algeria Arabs throw stones at black people including diplomats in markets and other public places and in Saudi Arabia blacks are treated worse than animals after using their life savings to go there on pilgrimage and Hundreds of Ethiopian who have lived all their lives in Saudi Arabia are being repatriated daily right now after loosing an arm or leg for some minor or trumped up offense and without regard for their comfort,welfare or rights and The Arabs succeeded in doing the same thing in Northern Africa where the original Nubian African owners of the land have almost all been wiped out and the rest marginalized (enslaved) by their Arab invaders/settlers since 642 CE and the Islamization is not the problem in Sudan because the majority Furnawi people of Darfur are Muslims the problem in The Fascism government A coalition of 50 charities in Darfur, Sudan published a study in mid December, 2008 confirming what the world already knew that the Janjaweed and the Sudanese army with the backing of their government, during joint or individual attacks, raped, tortured and killed Sudanese Africans and razed their villages to repopulate them with Arab nomads. They rounded up and abducted escapees from hide-outs in the bush and at other times raided refugee camps to kidnap Africans as sex and labour slaves working them to the bones as domestic and farm labour The army flew their captives in planes to Khartoum at night and shared them among soldiers like you allocate bags of commodities and used them as sex and domestic servants Kidnapped victims interviewed said their captors told them that ‘they were not human beings and that they were there to serve them In the five years between 2003 and 2008, over 300,000 Sudanese Africans were killed 100,000 abducted and 2.7 million rendered homeless refugees with their land appropriated by Muslims brotherhood The Khatoum government admitted 14,000 kidnaps You can imagine what happened when the world turned a blind eye on Sudan in the twenty years between 1983 when the conflict began !!!!!

Pan-African Congress

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Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere convened the last Pan-African Congress June 17–19, 1974, in Dar es Salaam Commonly known as the Six PAC this was the first congress held in Africa Nyerere considered this meeting coming after national liberation had spread throughout Africa and the Caribbean as an opportunity to discuss the “means, and further, the progress, of opposition to racialism, colonialism, oppression and exploitation everywhere and placing these in “the context of a worldwide movement for human equality and national self-determination” Alluding to the new challenges presented by independence Nyerere asked those present to recognize that “an end to colonialism is not an end to the oppression of man,” and to continue working “against oppression by the leaders of those countries which have recently attained freedom whether this is directed against other black men and women or against people of different races”Speeches and debates at the Six PAC focused on race and class and the African Diaspora but the proceedings were punctuated by heated disagreements among delegates from the United States and the Caribbean. Despite the contentiousness the resolution adopted at the Six PAC reflected the efforts of delegates to envision the tasks of a new struggle and a new liberated future This resolution focused on neo-colonialism as the new threat to African diasporic independence and on the continued oppression of Africa; took up the struggle against apartheid in South Africa; class differences and exploitation in Africa; and the Palestinian liberation movement and The Six PAC held several sessions on the oppression and exploitation of women the resolution itself calling for the democratization and “transformat[ion] of gender relations on the continent and in the diaspora” Coming over a half-century after the first Pan-African Congress in Paris, and some eighty-odd years after the Chicago Conference on Africa, the Six PAC showed the imaginative daring that drew those first delegates to London in 1900 and inspired Du Bois to work so diligently on the congresses from 1919 to 1927 In its closing lines the resolution talked of the Six PAC delegates daring “to dream the same dream that has always filled the villages, ghettos, townships and slave quarters with hope, that has always animated the spirit of resistance” It resonated with the optimism of those earlier meetings, if it betrayed in a far more public way the limits of that illusive ideal to racial unity A struggle against new forms of exploration and oppression awaited the African Diaspora and the resolution concluded with a fitting echo of Du Bois 

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Pan-Africanism represents the complexities of black political and intellectual thought over two hundred years What constitutes Pan-Africanism what one might include in a Pan-African movement often changes according to whether the focus is on politics, ideology, organizations or culture Pan-Africanism actually reflects a range of political views At a basic level it is a belief that African peoples both on the African continent and in the Diaspora share not merely a common history but a common destiny This sense of interconnected pasts and futures has taken many forms especially in the creation of political institutions